Muhammad Yousaf Quddoos*
 
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan, Email: [email protected]
 
*Correspondence: Muhammad Yousaf Quddoos, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan, Email: [email protected]

Received: 20-May-2022, Manuscript No. AMHSR-22-64542; Editor assigned: 23-May-2022, Pre QC No. AMHSR-22-64542; Reviewed: 06-Jun-2022 QC No. AMHSR-22-64542; Revised: 20-Jul-2022, Manuscript No. AMHSR-22-64542; Published: 05-Aug-2022

Citation: Quddoos MY. Effect of Commercially and Home- Made Concoction on Serum LDL, HDL, Cholesterol and Concentrations in Dyslipidemia Adult. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2022;12:1-6.

This open-access article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (CC BY-NC) (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits reuse, distribution and reproduction of the article, provided that the original work is properly cited and the reuse is restricted to noncommercial purposes. For commercial reuse, contact [email protected]

Abstract

Dyslipidemia is a condition in which amount of lipids in blood increases above its normal level. The prevalence of dyslipidemia in Pakistan is 16–20% in both men and women. It may be treated through dietary interventions prepared from indigenous sources. Garlic and ginger have a potential to reduce the amount of LDL and triglycerides and also increase the amount of HDL. Honey has antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-dyslipidemia effect and adjusts immunity and glycemic response. Apple cider vinegar contains polyphenol like chromogenic acid which may reduce the serum TGs by reducing the lipogenesis and enhance the removal of the TGs through bile. Vitamin C that is the main constituent of lemon may lower down the risk of coronary Heart disease. Concoction is devised by mixing of several ingredients, like garlic (Allium sativum L.) ginger (Zingier officinale), lemon (Citrus aurantifolia), apple cider vinegar and honey. Concoction was prepared after preliminary trial and evaluated for physiochemical, microbial and sensory parameters for 2 months at two different temperatures ((0-4oC) and (25-40oC)) and in two different packaging (plastic bottles and glass bottles). The dyslipidemic males and females (n=4210) were approached from different hospitals and clinics from different areas. They were assessed through anthropometrics, body composition, clinical signs and symptoms, dietary intake by FFQ along with biomarkers i.e. lipid pro ile, CBC, LDL, HDL, urea. Creatinine, TC and TGs. The selected treatment of concoctions (T0, T4 and T8) was provided to the volunteers for 120 days. The data was analyzed statistically to validate the results of the study. Results showed that there were decrease in TC, TGs, and LDL about 15, 33.7 and 16% correspondingly, while it also increases about 13% of HDL. Other parameters that were also decreased are Urea, uric acid and cretonne. It is recapitulated that concoction stored at refrigerated temperature (0-4oC) in glass bottle is appropriate and cost effective indigenous source for the treatment of dyslipidemia.

Keywords

Triglycerides; Garlic; Ginger; Dyslipidemia; lemon; Apple cider vinegar; Honey

Introduction

Knowledge cholesterol is a fat, produced in liver and imperative for proper functioning of body. It is a vivacious fat in the blood. If the level of cholesterol surpasses its limit in blood, it might root solemn health complications like arteriosclerosis. The development of plaque in arteries that causes myocardial infarction is termed as arteriosclerosis. The outermost sheath of each cell of human being is fabricated by cholesterol. Cholesterol travels in body with the help of lipoprotein. The disease which may be acute or chronic causes mortality. Increased or decreased level of nutrients and many essential entities are capable to root complications in the body. Therefore, increased level of serum cholesterol may lead to an alarming circumstance resulting in diverse diseases. According to WHO 40% of mortality rate occasioned due to cardiovascular ailment by the year 2020.

Hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, low physical activity, genetic predisposition, gender, age and smoking are some important factors which may causes diseases leading to death. HDL is 1 of the 5 chief assemblages of lipoproteins. It is also acknowledged as virtuous cholesterol that plays a conflicting role to LDL because it constrains arterio-sclerosis. It works in the transportation of cholesterol from cells to liver. LDL is also recognized as adverse cholesterol because it works contradictory to HDL, so it conveys cholesterol from liver to cells of the body due to which arteriosclerosis may result. The development of clot in arteries takes place due to increased amount of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) in the blood. An ester derived from 3 fatty acids and glycerol is known as Triglyceride (TGs).

Elevated level of TGs in blood has been associated with heart disease, atherosclerosis and stroke. The main cause of hyperlipidemia involves changes in lifestyle habits in which the risk factor is a basically poor diet i.e. with >40% fat intake of total calories, the amount of saturated fat is >10% of total calories; cholesterol is >300 mg/d or medical conditions can be treated.

The cure of dyslipidemia, innumerable food plants has been utilized. Lipid profile has been normalized by an aid of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) oil. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) comprises several bioactive amalgams that are potentially valuable in the cure of innumerable illnesses including hyper-cholesterolemia. Concoction fabricated by mixing garlic (Allium sativum L.) ginger (Zingiber officinale), lemon (Citrus aurantifolia), apple cider vinegar and honey has been proved to be exciting and convenient household therapy in dealing heart diseases.

In addition, lowering the serum cholesterol level, it correspondingly decreases high blood pressure. Probabilities of infection, joint aching, rheumatism and gout can also be reduced by consuming this concoction. It is a best cardio tonic and also a weight controller. The purpose os the study to develop and evaluate the concoction from indigenous sources and investigate the effects of selected concoction treatments in dyslipidemia adults [1-4].

Materials and Methods

Permission, approach and informed consent

The written permission from concerned authority was occupied to conduct the research work. Research project briefed in detail to target population after approached. The handouts of Education, Information and Communication (EIC) materials were given to the volunteers. Received the informed consent (willingness) from the adults who want to be part of the research. The study conformed to the ethical guidelines of the University of Sargodha.

Targetpopulation,studylocationandsampling technique

75 Adult male and female were target population. Different hospitals and clinics in different areas were selected as study site for the research project after getting permission from the authority. The selection of the human volunteer was carried out in accordance with two stage sampling that is convenience and purposive sampling technique; a part of non-probability sampling method [5,6].

Research design

The research design was randomized controlled clinical trial in which blood samples of all the volunteer were collected in two phases, in first phase lab test of volunteer performed which indicated volunteer were dyslipidemic then these volunteer carried out for further research, at the end again lab test performed of dyslipidemic volunteers. The data was collected through tools like questionnaires, family, medical and diet history.

Duration of study

The research was for three months of dyslipidemic adults. In which their initial and final test was performed which mentioned above. The parameters like volunteer’ name, age, gender, qualification, occupation, income, family diseases and physical activity level of demographics was collected. The parameters height, weight, body composition, body mass index, basal metabolic rate and active metabolic rate of anthropometric, energetic, clinical assessment, medical and family history, dietary intakes assessment and biomarker of selected volunteer were recorded for their nutritional status assessment.

Statistical analyses

Appropriate statistical analyses were performed for treatment selection and further evaluation on the basis of sensory evaluation results and blood sample results. Significant value was tested by parametric and non-parametric test. Tables, graph and chart were used to mention the data. Data’s frequency and distribution was checked by descriptive statistics [7-10].

Results

Anthropometric

Highly significant variation was found among physiological status and non-significant variation was found among gender was noted regarding weight but there was non-significant variation between 0 day and 120 days in dyslipidemic and non-dyslipidemic and highly significant variation was found among physiological status and gender was noted regarding body fat but non-significant variation in between days (Table 1). Non-Significant variation found in means values (days) of body water, muscle mass, bones mass and BMI while lightly signification between Physiological Status (PS) and gender [11-14].

Table 1: Anthropometric measurements of volunteers.
PS Gender Age Weight (Kg) Body Fat (%) Body Water (%) Bone Mass (%) Muscle Mass (%) BMI
    0 Days 120 Days 0 Days 120 Days 0 Days 120 Days 0 Days 120 Days 0 Days 120 Days 0 Days 120 Days
Dislipidemic Male 25  ±  7 66.17 ± 3.59A 64.17 ± 3.6A 33.27  ± 1B 33.27 ± 1B 40.38 ± 1.18B 40.42 ± 1.18B 7.09± 0.26A 7.09 ± 0.26A 30.09 ± 0.57C 30.09 ± 0.57C 25.63 ± 1.5AB 24.81 ± 1.5AB
  Female 25  ±  7 66.55 ± 2.37A 64.48 ± 2.28A 37.07 ± 0.57A 37.07 ± 0.57A 36.76 ± 0.63B 36.8 ± 0.63B 7.08±0.23A 7.08 ± 0.23A 25.86± 0.26D 25.86 ± 0.26D 27.45 ± 0.94A 26.56 ± 0.9AB
Non-Dislipidemic Male 25  ±  7 62.74 ± 2.08A 60.93 ± 2.04A 19.96 ± 0.41CD 19.85 ± 0.42D 63.06 ± 0.8A 63.07 ± 0.8A 7.48±0.25A 7.48  ± 0.25A 40.29± 0.37A 40.29 ± 0.37A 23.64 ± 0.78AB 22.96 ± 0.77B
  Female 25  ±  7 59.09 ± 1.77A 57.68 ± 1.69A 22.35 ± 0.34C 22.3± 0.34C 60.3± 0.83A 60.31 ± 0.83A 6.14±0.28A 6.14 ± 0.28A 36.16± 0.25B 36.16 ± 0.25B 24.8 ± 0.79AB 24.19 ± 0.75AB

Dietary intakes

Non-significant values found in days and in genders of cereals while high significant in PS. Same trend found in fruits, vegetables and meat. Non-dyslipidemic male and female was taking more fruits as compared to dyslipidemia. In case of comparison between genders in both groups showed that in non dyslipidemic group male were taking less fruits as compared to female. In second group male were taking more fruits with comparison to female. Intake of fruit and vegetables according to the USDA recommendation helps to remove cholesterol revealed the result of their study that, level of LDL was 6-7% lesser in those volunteers who were taking enough fruits and vegetables as compared to those who were not taking enough fruits. This might be due to the presence of dietary fibers in fruits which helps in absorption and removal of cholesterol from the blood. Dyslipidemic volunteers (in male and female) were taking less vegetable as compared to non-dyslipidemic (male and female. According to means values dyslipidemic volunteers were taking high intake of meat and meat products as compared to non-dyslipidemic but days wise non-significant (Table 2) [15].

Table 2: Daily dietary intakes at entry and after concoction.
PS Gender Cereals Fruits Vegetables Meat and Meat Products Milk and Milk Products Fats and Oil Junk and Snacks
  0 Days 120 Days 0 Days 120 Days 0 Days 120 Days 0 Days 120 Days 0 Days 120 Days 0 Days 120 Days 0 Days 120 Days
Dislipidemic Male 5.22 ± 0.26B 5.22± 0.26B 1.22± 0.13BC 1.29 ± 0.12B 1.78± 0.17BC 1.80 ± 0.1BC 4.33 ± 0.33A 4.35 ± 0.29A 4 ± 0.31A 4.04 ± 0.25A 4.61 ± 0.27A 4.61 ± 0.14B 4.06 ± 0.36A 4.07 ± 0.18B
Female 5.43 ± 0.23B 5.48 ± 0.23B 0.99± 0.1C 1 ± 0.1B 1.83± 0.1C 1.86 ± 0.07B 4.05 ± 0.2A 4.1± 0.16A 4.17 ±  0.2A 4.18 ± 0.16A 3.67 ± 0.17B 3.67 ± 0.13B 4.05 ± 0.18A 4.05 ± 0.13B
Non-Dislipidemic Male 7.55 ± 0.25A 7.55 ± 0.25A 4.07± 0.22A 4.1± 0.21A 3.9 ± 0.19A 3.95 ± 0.16A 3.9± 0.29A 3.93 ± 0.28A 3.48 ± 0.22A 3.48 ± 0.22A 1.83 ± 0.13C 1.84 ± 0.12C 1.34 ± 0.15C 1.37 ± 0.11C
Female 7.87 ± 0.28A 7.87 ± 0.28A 4.06± 0.16A 4.08 ± 0.16A 4.13± 0.18A 4.20 ± 0.16A 3.52 ± 0.26A 3.55 ± 0.24A 4.32 ± 0.26A 4.32 ± 0.26A 1.9± 0.15C 1.91 ± 0.14C 1.48 ± 0.17C 1.49 ± 0.15C

Non-significant means value found in among physiological status and in days but significant in gender of milk and milk product. In fat and oils only significant values found in days of male. Also same trend found in junk and snacks. Junk food or any fried food increase the cholesterol level might be due to the presence of trans-fat in them. Frequent consumption of such food ultimately causes many diseases like dyslipidemia [16-21].

Dyslipidemia

Level of TC: Highly significant results were obtained among treatments and days while non-significant results were obtained among gender. That the cholesterol levels were increased in the respondents following treatment T0, while the cholesterol levels were decreased significantly in Treatment T8 and were decreased highly significantly in Treatment T4. Gingerly is the chief bioactive component of ginger which increases the level of pancreatic lipase. It also enhances the activity of hepatic cholesterol-7-hydroxylase which converts cholesterol into bile acid and eventually removes it from body.

TGs: Highly significant results were obtained among treatments and days while non-significant results were obtained among gender. TGs levels were increased in the respondents following treatment T0, while the TGs levels were decreased significantly in treatment T8 and were decreased highly significantly in treatment T4 (Table 3). By obstructing enzymes called diacylglycerol acyltransferase in liver cells, niacin inhibits the aggregation of triglyceride deposition from adipose cells. Since this enzyme is active in the HMG-CoA reductase pathway in cholesterol synthesis

Table 3: Effect of concoction on dyslipidemia.
  Gender TC (mg/dL) TGs  (mg/dL) LDL  (mg/dL) HDL  (mg/dL) Urea  (mg/dL) Uric Acid (mg/dL) Creatinine (mg/dL)
Treatments   0 Days 120 Days 0 Days 120 Days 0 Days 120 Days 0 Days 120 Days 0 Days 120 Days 0 Days 120 Days 0 Days 120 Days
T0 Male 214.25 ± 0.85 B 233.25 ± 2.36A 213.25 ± 13.4B 251.25 ± 7.74A 149.25 ± 1.31B 151 ± 3.19B 45 ± 0.91C 40 ± 0.82D 13.34 ± 0.6CDE 15.42 ± 0.6AB 5.93± 0.06CD 6.13 ± 0.03A 1.02 ± 0.01C 1.15 ± 0.02A
Female 215 ± 1.28B 229.63 ± 1.75A 212.25 ± 4.7B 250.94 ± 4.14A 151.25 ± 1.28B 158.81 ± 1.92A 44.94 ± 0.54C 36.69 ± 0.88E 14.63 ± 0.27B 16.29 ±  0.23A 5.93± 0.03CD 6.09 ± 0.02AB 1.02 ± 0.01C 1.08 ± 0.01B
T4 Male 210.43 ± 2.26B 178.86 ± 2.78E 216.75 ±5.41B 143.75 ± 6.88E 151.75  ± 0.48B 132.5 ± 1.5D 45.75 ± 1.44C 52 ± 0.82A 14.41 ± 0.21BCDE 13.11 ± 0.23DE 5.99 ± 0.03C 5.91 ± 0.02D 1.01 ± 0.02C 0.98 ± 0.01C
Female 212 ± 2.15B 188  ± 2.79D 203.81 ± 4.83B 149.56 ± 4.31E 149.94 ± 0.89B 131.44 ± 0.48D 45.19 ± 0.43C 49.63 ± 0.67AB 14.93 ± 0.33B 13.17 ± 0.22D 6.02 ± 0.07ABCD 5.88 ± 0.04CD 1.02 ± 0.01C 1 ± 0.01C
Ts Male 211 ± 1.58B 198.75 ± 4.73C 202.14 ± 8.52BC 185± 6.55CD 150.57 ± 2.16B 139.14 ± 1.18C 46 ± 0.82C 48.71 ± 0.57B 14.7 ± 0.42BC 14.3 ± 0.64BCE 6.01 ± 0.07ABC 6 ± 0.04BCD 1.01 ± 0.02C 0.99 ± 0.01C
Female 212.44 ± 1.77B 197.75 ± 1.6C 208.15 ± 4.52B 174.23 ± 5.57D 149.31± 1.16B 138.31 ± 1.25C 44.54 ± 0.57C 48.54 ± 0.63B 14.51 ± 0.34BC 14.21 ± 0.38BCE 6.01± 0.07ABC 6 ± 0.04BCD 1.01 ± 0.01C 1.02 ± 0.01C

LDL: Highly significant results were obtained among treatments and days but non-significant results were obtained among gender. Garlic reduces the amount of Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides. But increases the amount of High Density Lipoprotein (HDL). Garlic also lowers down the activity of HMG-CoA reductase (3- hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme a reductase) that is involved in cholesterol formation.

HDL and Urea: Both parameters have highly significant results were obtained among treatments and non-significant results were obtained among days of intervention. But significant in gender of HDL. The level of HDL were decreased in the respondents following treatment T0, while the HDL levels were increased significantly in treatment T8 and were increased highly significantly in treatment T4 (Table 3). Lemon (Citrus Aurantifolia L.) produces vitamin C which stimulates a-hydroxylase enzyme 7, which increases the modification of blood cholesterol to bile acid, resulting in a decrease of blood cholesterol levels. Adequate vitamin C intake (1 mL/kg/day) lowers cholesterol and LDL blood triglycerides and raises blood HDL concentrations elucidated that; consumption of garlic averts the rise in serum urea, while producing a prominent decrease in serum urea level. Intake of ginger reduces gluconeogenesis through proteolysis which ultimately reduces the level of serum urea and creatinine [22-25].

Uric acid: Non-significant values found in gender and days while significant in treatments. Uric acid levels were decreased slightly in the respondents following treatment T0, while the uric acid levels remained unchanged treatment T8 and were decreased slightly in treatment T4 (Table 3). The level of uric acid decreases meaningfully with the intake of ginger.

Creatinine: High significant values found in treatments, significant in days while non-significant in gender. Creatinine levels were increased in the respondents following treatment T0, while the creatinine levels were decreased in treatment T8 and were decreased in treatment T4 (Table 3) [26-32].

Discussion

Observed in study that, serum creatinine was remarkably lowered with the intake of garlic due to its defensive action against nephrotoxicity. In study of El-Shenawy and Hassan, garlic reduced increased serum creatinine level to its normal. Intake of ginger regulates gluconeogenesis through proteolysis which ultimately reduces the level of serum urea and creatinine.

Conclusion

T4 illustrated significant improvement in the dyslipidemic related biomarker like it reduces TC (210-178 mg/dL), TGs (216-143 mg/dL), LDL (157-132 mg/dL) and improve the level of HDL (45-52 mg/dL). T4 also improved other biomarkers like it decreases urea, uric acid, creatinine and increase level of Hb. It is generalize that concoction is appropriate and cost effective for the treatment of dyslipidemia.

References

20+ Million Readerbase
+44-175-271-2024
Abstracted/Indexed in

  • Include Baidu Scholar
  • CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure)
  • EBSCO Publishing's Electronic Databases
  • Exlibris – Primo Central
  • Google Scholar
  • Hinari
  • Infotrieve
  • National Science Library
  • ProQuest
  • TdNet
  • African Index Medicus
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research The Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research is a bi-monthly multidisciplinary medical journal. more >>
Submit your Manuscript