Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases
Citation: Gouyor ED. Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2021; 11:S1 15-16.
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Epidemiology is a science that studies contagion, that is, the multiplication of diseases that can be transmitted from one person to another. Our study is based on the field of public health, especially on pandemics of (diseases) that can affect an entire continent. For example, sexually transmitted diseases. We will also put special emphasis on the facts of the high risk spread of STDs around the world.
Methodology and Problem
According to a survey carried out among rural populations, in the maritime region on sexually transmitted diseases, on 708 subjects questioned according to the sexes, the age groups (12 to 49 years) and on a field of activity such as professionals sex, including 342 women, 276 men and 90 sex workers, during the last 8 months from October 10, 2019 to May 11, 2020. The said results are shown in Table 1.
|Disease||VIH/ SIDA||Chlamydiosis||Syphilis||Hepatitis B||Not infected||Total|
|% among women||0,43||0,35||0,29||0,07||2,28||0,79|
|% at men's||0,38||0,75||0,15||0,28||1,20||1,56|
|% among sex workers||0,29||0,13||0,17||0,22||0,09||0,81|
Table 1: Survey carried out among rural populations.
According to figures from the WHO (World Health Organization), the worldwide annual incidence is estimated at 330 million cases of STDs, with great variation among developing countries.
Regarding the cause, we can evoke the low level of socioeconomic activities, the multiplicity of partners, prostitution and the prison population.
In Lomé, as in most African capitals, sex workers (homosexuals and bisexuals) carry out their lucrative activity, despite various actions tending to make them abandon this work of perverse sexual exploitation. The big concern today is the prostitution of underage girls (12 to 18 years old).
According to our inquiries, investigations, and interviews with some of them and on the most frequented places, in particular the Decon crossroads, St Joseph college, Kodome and at Agoe, we had the pleasure of collecting some information from them.
But first it should be noted that this phenomenon is gradually destroying the future of future generations and undermining government and international efforts to achieve the SDGs (Sustainable Development Goals)
During this pandemic period, their activity begins at 6 am and stops in the evening before 8 pm, because of the curfew established by the Togolese government to eradicate the spread of Covid-19 in greater Lomé and its surroundings. These surveys were carried out on 165 sex workers according to the following age groups in Table 2 [Figure 1].
|Age range||Number of subject survey||Rate|
|12 à 16 age||98||0,98 %|
|16 à 49 age||67||0,67 %|
Table 2: Survey carried out among sex workers.
Fortunately, sexually transmitted diseases are no longer inevitable. There are simple means and actions to avoid them and stop their spread thanks to the development of medicine, chemistry, biology etc. In addition, for greater safety and security, we are recommended to use a condom during sexual intercourse, vaccinations against hepatitis and, to avoid other infections, we must do regular screening after each unprotected sex. and at each change of partner. If a person has been infected with an STD, they should inform their old and new partners so that they can be tested immediately.
As a solution approach that can get them out of this scourge, it is urgent to empower them with income-generating activities, which should enable them to meet their needs as well as those of their families; possibly the government and international organizations can offer them food, condoms and antibiotics indicated in the matter.
Moreover, we are making an urgent appeal to our governments, to development partners to fund and encourage research on sexually transmitted diseases and particularly Covid-19, which is a recent disease that has not yet been metered.
We expressly recommend that our governments and development partners take all their responsibilities for this segment of the population which is at risk and which risks endangering the rest of the population through contamination.
In short, sexually transmitted diseases are generally frequent all over the world and especially in South Saharan Africa. According to statistical data, poor African countries are the most at risk. In addition, this covid-19 pandemic which claims many victims has only immediate solution to barrier measures, which begin by not being respected as at the beginning of the disease and, our major concern is formulated as follows: if this trend remains continuous, what will tomorrow bring in the fight against Covid-19 which does not yet have a curative remedy?