Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment: A Study on Emergency Medical Technician in the Southeast of Iran
2 Health in Emergency and Disaster Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation, Tehran, Iran
3 Health in Emergency and Disaster Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
Citation: Saberinia A, et al. Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment: A Study on Emergency Medical Technician in the Southeast of Iran. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2019;9:723-728.
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Introduction: Job satisfaction and organizational commitment are important in enhancing organizational productivity and maintaining efficient human resources, especially in hard working centers such as medical emergencies. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment of medical emergency personnel working in Kerman University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, all the emergency medical staffs of Kerman University of Medical Sciences enrolled. Data were collected using Visoki & Chroma’s job satisfaction questionnaire standardized based on Descriptive Job Index and Meier organizational commitment questionnaire. SPSS software version 20 was then used for data analysis. Results: 200 questionnaires were filled out. Female employees have higher level of organizational commitment (3.51) and there is no significant difference in organizational commitment between the male and female groups. This study showed that there is a significant and positive correlation between job satisfaction and organizational commitment with the correlation coefficient of 0.58. Conclusion: The results show that there is a significant and positive relationship between employees’ job satisfaction and organizational commitment, meaning that higher job satisfaction leads to a greater commitment of individuals to the organization.
Job Satisfaction; Organizational commitment; Medical Emergency Technicians
Organization is a social system the life and sustainability of which depend on the strong link between its components and its constituents. Human resources are an integral part and one of the most important tools to advance goals in any organization, and the study of employee satisfaction in the workplace is crucial because of the importance of human resources compared to other in-house resources.  Today, scholars recognize and emphasize the importance and role of human resources as a factor in the development of the country and consider the human resources as the most important asset of any organization.  Emergency medical staffs, as human resource for health organizations, are of paramount importance in promoting community health, so that health care organizations cannot succeed without the effective emergency medical staff. Therefore, paying attention to the employee morale and motivation is a high priority; Blanchard considers the success and efficiency of human resources dependent on the efficient use of behavioral sciences and understanding the concepts that influence human resource efficiency.  On the other hand, when the staffs join the organizations, a set of demands, needs, and aspirations arises, namely, job expectations that refer to job satisfaction as the most important attitude, or judgment of employees about their job and organization.  Job satisfaction means that the person generally likes and values his or her job and has a positive attitude towards it that makes him to strive to achieve organizational goals and have a strong desire to maintain membership in the organization. [5,6] At present, there is much evidence on the stressful nature of the medical emergencies profession, including its unpredictable nature as a job, lack of psychological support, conflict with physicians, and ambiguity in physical and psychological powers and pressures. This has caused many hospital staff to leave their jobs each year due to job dissatisfaction, which in addition to wasting a great deal of training costs, results in the loss of skills, expertise and human resources.  On the other hand, organizations with high levels of organizational commitment have been found to have higher performance and lower absenteeism and delay on the part of their employees, and in many cases, organizations need individuals who attempt beyond their duty for the organization’s best interests, which is especially important in sensitive jobs such as medical emergencies.  In Iran, many studies have investigated the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment of staff, but less research has investigated this relationship in medical emergency staff. Therefore, this study was designed and conducted to determine the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment of medical emergency personnel working in Kerman University of Medical Sciences.
In this descriptive-correlational study, which was conducted from January to March 2011, the necessary information about the background and literature of the research was collected through a library method. The statistical population of this study consisted of 400 staff members of Kerman University of Medical Sciences Emergency Medical Center. According to Morgan’s table, 198 people should be considered as statistical sample, in which 200 people will be considered as sample. Then the field method was used to distribute demographic data sheets and standard questionnaires that tested validity and reliability while being standard. The Job Satisfaction Questionnaire consists of 40 questions that include five components. This questionnaire was developed and standardized by Wysocki & Kromm on the basis of the job descriptive index  in terms of job satisfaction, satisfaction with superior, satisfaction with co-workers, satisfaction with promotion and satisfaction with payment.
To measure organizational commitment, the Meir Organizational Commitment Questionnaire was used with three emotional, continuance and normative dimensions. The questionnaire has 24 questions that each 8 questions measure one of three dimensions and are based on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from strongly agrees to strongly disagree.  Organizational commitment scores range from 24 to 120 points. Scores ranges indicate 24 to 44 present (very low commitment), 45 to 65 (low commitment), 60 to 90 (high commitment), and 91 to 120 (very high commitment). Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for emotional, continuance and normative subscales were reported as 0.88, 0.84, and 0.89, respectively. The questionnaire was also used by researchers in Iran and Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of emotional, continuance and normative subscales were 0.85, 0.79 and 0.83, respectively.
Since the questionnaire was self-administered, it had to be completed by the individual to collect data. Therefore, after visiting the workplace, the questionnaires were distributed to the participants and then completed and finally the data from the questionnaires were coded and then analyzed in SPSS version 20. In addition, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine the mean of organizational commitment and job satisfaction in terms of variables of age, education, work experience, marital status, gender and type of employment.
The results of correlation coefficient between job satisfaction and organizational commitment showed that there is a significant and positive relationship (0.58) between job satisfaction and organizational commitment [Tables 1 and 2]. As can be seen in Table 3, there is a significant and positive relationship between the components of job satisfaction and organizational commitment that supports the research hypotheses [Table 3].
|Type of correlation coefficient||The value of the correlation coefficient||Significance level||Results|
|Spearman||58/0||100/0||Correlation is significant|
Table 1: Correlation coefficient between job satisfactions with organizational commitment.
|Variables||Emotional Commitment||Continuance Commitment||Normative Commitment||Job Nature Satisfaction||Satisfaction with superior||Satisfaction with coworker||Satisfaction with promotion||Satisfaction with payment||Commitment|
|Emotional Commitment||1||472/0 *||582/0 *||363/0 *||431/0 *||424/0 *||504/0 *||4/0 *||812/0 *|
|Continuance Commitment||472/0 *||1||496/ 0 *||246/0 *||217/ 0 *||244/0 *||217/0 *||213/0 *||746/0 *|
|Normative Commitment||582/0 *||496/0 *||1||241/0 *||494/0 *||411/0 *||572/0 *||446/0 *||875/0 *|
|Job Satisfaction||363/0 *||246/0 *||241/0 *||1||425/0 *||445/0 *||312/0 *||042/0 *||362/0 *|
|Satisfaction with superior||431/0 *||217/0 *||494/0 *||425/0 *||1||574/0 *||625/0 *||484/0 *||493/0 *|
|Satisfaction with coworker||424/0 *||244/0 *||411/0 *||445/0 *||574/0 *||1||662/0 *||337/0 *||464/0 *|
|Satisfaction with promotion||504/0 *||217/0 *||572/0 *||312/0 *||625/0 *||662/0 *||1||665/0 *||557/0 *|
|Satisfaction with payment||4/0 *||213/0 *||446/0 *||042/0||484/0 *||337/0 *||665/0 *||1||431/0 *|
|Commitment||812/0 *||746/0 *||875/0 *||362/0 *||493/0 *||464/0 *||557/0 *||431/0 *||1|
Table 2: Correlation coefficient between the components of job satisfaction and the components of organizational commitment with organizational commitment of employees.
|Components of job satisfaction||Type of correlation coefficient||Value of correlation coefficient||Significance level||Results|
|Job Nature Satisfaction||Spearman||362/0||100/0 *||Correlation is significant|
|Satisfaction with superior||Spearman||493/0||100/0 *||Correlation is significant|
|Satisfaction with coworker||Spearman||464/0||100/0 *||Correlation is significant|
|Satisfaction with promotion||Spearman||557/0||100/0 *||Correlation is significant|
|Satisfaction with payment||Spearman||431/0||100/0 *||Correlation is significant|
Table 3: Correlation coefficient between components of job satisfaction and organizational commitment.
The results of the correlation test indicated that the components of job satisfaction (satisfaction with job nature, satisfaction with superior, satisfaction with coworker, satisfaction with promotion and satisfaction with payment) and organizational commitment components (emotional commitment, continuance commitment and normative dimensions.
Five dimensions of job nature, superiors, coworker, promotion and satisfaction with payment were used. The Friedman test was used to examine the significance of dimensions. According to Table 4, the p value is less than 0.5, indicating that these dimensions are not important to the staff [Table 5].
|Priority||Factors||Mean rank||Significance of Friedman test|
|1||Satisfaction with job nature||29/4||Total||198|
|X2||202 / 331|
|2||Satisfaction with superior||41/3|
|Significance (p value)||100/0|
|3||Satisfaction with coworker||09/3||Degree of freedom||4|
|4||Satisfaction with promotion||2/5|
|5||Satisfaction with payment||7/1|
Table 4: Mean rank and significance of Friedman test.
|Model||sum of squares||Degree of freedom||Mean squares||F||SIG|
Table 5: Analysis of variance.
In addition, it can be seen from Table 6 that the multiple correlation coefficient (R) for the relationship between job satisfaction (satisfaction with job nature, satisfaction with superior, satisfaction with co-worker, satisfaction with promotion and satisfaction with payment) and the dependent variable is (R=0.656) and the coefficient of determination is (0.41). This means that 41% of the variability in organizational commitment is significantly expressed by our 5 independent variables (satisfaction with job nature, satisfaction with superior, satisfaction with coworker, satisfaction with promotion and satisfaction with payment).
|Adjusted R Square||R Square||R||Model|
Table 6: Adjusted R Square value.
The results showed that only 41% of employees ‘organizational commitment was significantly explained by these three variables and 59% of change in employees’ organizational commitment was still not explained. In other words, there are other important variables for organizational commitment of employees, which are not considered in this study. Therefore, consideration of these variables by the management of the University of Medical Sciences could also explain other factors affecting the commitment of the medical emergency staff.
According to the results of the regression shown in Table 7, organizational commitment, satisfaction with promotion and satisfaction with job nature have significant correlation with organizational commitment; in other words, the mentioned independent variables predicted 0.416 of variance of the dependent variable of organizational commitment among medical emergency staffs. Therefore, among the five predicting variables, satisfaction with promotion and satisfaction with job nature are the best predictors of organizational commitment of medical emergency personnel working in Kerman University of Medical Sciences [Table 8].
|Satisfaction with promotion||0/538||0/046||0/321**||0/100*|
|Satisfaction with job nature||0/259||0/58||0/237**||0/100*|
|Satisfaction with payment||0/06||0/055||0/05||0/365|
|Satisfaction with superior||0/8||0/32||0/8||0/809|
|Satisfaction with coworker||-0/111||0/29||-0/05||0/094|
Table 7: Standardized and non-standardized regression coefficients of variables.
|Job Satisfaction Component|
|Satisfaction with job nature||Satisfaction with superior||Satisfaction with coworker||Satisfaction with promotion||Satisfaction with payment|
Table 8: ANOVA of the mean employee job satisfaction in terms of service location.
According to the results of ANOVA, among the five components of job satisfaction, the factor of satisfaction with payment has the lowest mean among the medical emergency staff according to the service location. This means that the highest employee dissatisfaction is related to the payment and message center staffs have the least satisfaction with their payment. The highest mean rank (highest level of satisfaction) in terms of service location is related to satisfaction with job nature that the road base staffs have the highest level of job satisfaction and generally road base staffs have the highest level of job satisfaction.
In ANOVA significance based on place of service, there was a significant difference between the satisfactions of staffs in the headquarters, urban base, and road base and message center in all cases except satisfaction with superiors. This means that satisfaction with supervisor is almost the same for all emergency medical staff [Table 9].
|Factors||Sum of squares||df||Mean squares||F||sig|
|Satisfaction with job nature||Inter group||15/688||3||5/229||7/373||0/100*|
|Satisfaction with superior||Inter group||4/037||3||1/346||0/54||0/656|
|Satisfaction with coworker||Inter group||62/505||3||20/835||7/156||0/100*|
|Satisfaction with promotion||Inter group||59/985||3||19/995||13/221||0/100*|
|Satisfaction with payment||Inter group||25/293||3||8/498||10/878||0/100*|
Table 9: Results of ANOVA test for significance of employee job satisfaction in terms of service location.
Table 10 showed that road base staff had the highest level of organizational commitment (3.65) and there was no significant difference in organizational commitment between the 4 groups of headquarters, road base, urban base and message center. There was a significant difference between the four groups in job satisfaction and the mean job satisfaction of road base staff (3.33) was higher than the other three groups.
|Service location||No||Mean organizational commitment||SIG of organizational commitment||Mean job satisfaction||Sig of job satisfaction|
Table 10: Results of ANOVA test for the mean and significance of employee organizational commitment and job satisfaction in terms of service location.
The results showed that employees 40 years of age had the highest level of organizational commitment (3.55) and there was no significant difference in organizational commitment among 4 staff groups, under 30, 30 to 40 and 40 years. There was no significant difference in job satisfaction between the 4 groups and the mean of job satisfaction of employees with 30-40 years of age (2.93) was higher than the other three groups. Moreover, staff with diploma degree had the highest level of organizational commitment (3.69) and no significant difference was found in organizational commitment 5 groups of headquarters staff with diploma, associate’s degree, bachelor, master and PhD. There was no significant difference in job satisfaction between the 5 groups and the mean job satisfaction of the PhD students (3.26) was higher than the other four groups. The results showed that employees with 10 to 20 years of experience had the highest level of organizational commitment (3.81) and there was a significant difference in organizational commitment between 4 groups with less than 1, 2, 5 -10, 10-20 years and over 20 years of experience. There was no significant difference in job satisfaction between the 4 groups and the mean of job satisfaction in 30-40 year old individuals was higher than the other three groups. The results by gender showed that female employees had higher level of organizational commitment (3.51) and there was no significant difference in organizational commitment between the two male and female groups. There is a significant difference in job satisfaction between the two groups of men and women and the average job satisfaction of women is higher than that of men. Findings in terms of marital status showed that single employees had the highest level of organizational commitment (3.58) and no significant difference was found in organizational commitment discussion between the two single and married groups. There was no significant difference in job satisfaction between the two groups and the mean job satisfaction of single people was higher than that of the married people. Findings by type of employment showed that employees with official hiring had the highest level of organizational commitment (3.81) and there was no significant difference in organizational commitment between the two groups with public employment and corporate employment. There was no significant difference in job satisfaction between the two groups and the mean of job satisfaction was higher for the official hiring group.
The goal of organizations is to create productivity. Among the factors contributing to productivity in organizations are the forces employed in it. Managers can take positive steps toward achieving the goals of the organization by improving job satisfaction and organizational commitment of employees to provide the opportunity to increase efficiency and effectiveness at the organization and community level. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment of medical emergency personnel working in Kerman University of Medical Sciences. 
According to Spearman’s correlation coefficient, there is a significant relationship between satisfaction and organizational commitment, meaning that greater job satisfaction leads to higher organizational commitment. On the contrary, it is proved that there is a significant relationship between employees’ job satisfaction and organizational commitment. These results are consistent with the results of Tomilson and Jankins studies, Chandan’s theoretical model, and Porter and Lawler’s theory of performance-satisfaction.  As a result, people who view their attitudes, beliefs, feelings, goals, and values as organizational goals and values (job satisfaction) will be highly committed to that organization and vice versa.
According to the correlation table, there is a significant relationship between organizational commitment and all components of job satisfaction and, on the other hand, all correlation coefficients are positive. Therefore, it is concluded that there is a direct and significant relationship between employee satisfaction with job nature and their organizational commitment. Vandenberg’s  job design paradigm was in line with this hypothesis, but this hypothesis was rejected in Shojaei Far  research. Since in their research, subjects are academics with high academic degrees and have heavy responsibility, the existence of strict regulations, uniformity of work, avoidance of scientific studies, and the performance of administrative duties affected their job satisfaction. As a result, jobs with higher challenge, development, creativity, attraction, enjoyment, peace, value and health will acquire more commitment on the part of employees and vice versa.
Concerning organizational commitment, the results of this study are in line with the results of Koozechain and Rouhi who showed that most people had moderate organizational commitment. [14,15] Since various factors affect the promotion of organizational commitment of staff, it seems necessary for managers to consider the factors such as job transparency, proper evaluation of staff performance, job security, etc. that increase the level of organizational commitment of nurses and promote them with holding courses such as coping with stress, conflict management, and so on to make them more capable. There is a direct and significant relationship between employee satisfaction with coworker and organizational commitment. This hypothesis is confirmed in Bakhtiari, KY Lu and Wang’s research. [16-18] Consequently, if teachers find their colleagues motivated, trustworthy, intelligent, active, pleasant, intimate, respectful, respectful, responsive, and quick in the organization in which they work, they will show higher commitment and vice versa.
Therefore, as the level of satisfaction with one of the components of job satisfaction becomes greater, the level of organizational commitment increases and vice versa. The results showed that there was a statistically significant relationship between job satisfaction and professional commitment of the studied population. Accordingly, professional commitment also increased with increasing job satisfaction. Researchers consider the differences in the results of various studies on job satisfaction and professional commitment associated with different cultural, social, economic, workplace conditions, the number of people surveyed, and the use of different means of measurement. However, most studies on job satisfaction and commitment agree that there is a relationship between professional commitment and job satisfaction and the overall result is consistent with the results of other studies.
This study showed that there is a direct relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment and improvement of job satisfaction and organizational commitment of employees, in turn, increases the sense of creativity and innovation among employees. It also enhances their involvement in organizational affairs and acceptance of responsibility in achieving the goals of the organization and thus promotes the organization and community level.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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