Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a very common mental condition and a unique anxiety disorder. Aim: The present study tried to examine the correlation between kind of delivery and PTSD. Subjects and Methods: This prospective study evaluated 240 Iranian female residents of Tehran, Iran, during the third trimester of their pregnancy and 6–8 weeks after labor. Data were collected using the customized screening form, the Symptom ChecklistâÂÂ90, PTSD Symptom Scale (PSS), and Social Support Questionnaire. The collected data were then analyzed with SPSS software. Results: According to the participants’ responses to the subscales of the PSS, reexperiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal symptoms were present in 100, 25, and 77 participants, respectively. Moreover, 15 individuals manifested all three groups of symptoms. Therefore, the prevalence of PTSD in the studied population was 6.2%. The logistic regression analysis revealed PTSD to be 0.06 times more prevalent in women with poor social support after delivery than in those enjoying a desirable level of support (P < 0.01; odds ratio = 0.06). Based onChisquare test results, there was no significant correlation between the kind of delivery and the incidence of PTSD after delivery (P = 0.48). Conclusion: Since PTSD was more common after cesarean sections (than after vaginal deliveries), health policymakers need to develop efficient strategies to promote vaginal delivery.