Background: Anemia in the postnatal period is a common problem, which has been subject of research recently. Though, it is a common problem, it is a less researched topic in India. Hence, this study was undertaken. Aim: The aim was to know the clinic‑social factors associated with anemia in the postpartum period. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective record‑based study conducted in Government Lady Goschen Hospital, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore. All the women in the postpartum period who had hemoglobin (%) <11 g/dl were included for the study. Information about various social and clinical factors was collected on a pretested semi‑structured proforma. Multivariate analyses were used to get adjusted odds ratio. P < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: About 16.7% (165/988) had moderate anemia. The rest that is 83.3% (823/988) had mild anemia. Multivariate analysis reveals that following factors were significantly associated with moderate anemia: Illiterate mothers, parity (≥3), short interpregnancy interval (<3 years), presence of anemia in the antenatal period, late diagnosis in the antenatal period and poor compliance with treatment. Conclusion: Majority had mild anemia. Further research should be focused to (1) reasons for persistence of anemia from antenatal to postpartum period. (2) Find out the reason for failure to come for follow‑up in the postpartum period even though services are free.