Peptic ulcer disease including both gastric and duodenal ulcer form a substantial part of patients seeking surgical opinion worldâwide. The concept of acid in peptic ulcer disease, which was the basis of treatment of peptic ulcer was revolutionized by the discovery of H2âreceptor antagonists, that led to the principle of acid suppression therapy for duodenal ulcer which followed decades of preference for surgical interventions in the form of gastric resections, vagotomy etc., After the discovery of Helicobacter pylori organism as the causative factor a triple drug regime was identified to treat peptic disease which was further modified to sequential therapy to avoid antibiotic resistance. This recognition has not concluded the chapter on peptic ulcers. The management of ulcer disease and its complications remain a surgical challenge. All the materials for this review have been accessed from various internet search engines. The references have been narrowed down to 34 by excluding cross references, duplicated citations, pediatric studies, case reports, iatrogenic and malignant perforations and including microbiological, immunohistochemistry references and studies with more than a sample size of ten. Case control, cohort studies, prospective/retrospective, metaanalytical studies were preferred in that order. This article attempts to take an overview of all aspects of the management of peptic ulcer.