Background: Tooth mortality is important in evaluating dental care as tooth loss is a reflection of cumulative effects of past disease and treatment practices. Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze the pattern of tooth mortality among pediatric dental patients treated at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients treated at the Pediatric dental clinic of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City between June 2007 and April 2012. Patients’ age, sex, indication for extraction and type of tooth were reviewed. Data analysis in the form of frequency, percentages, cross tabulation, Chi-square statistics were performed using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) (Chicago IL, USA) version 17.0. Results: A total of 712 patients between the ages 0 and 16 years were seen and 1039 extractions were performed. Tooth extraction was performed more among females 53.4% (380/712) and those aged 6‑12 years 54.1% (384/712). About one‑third 33.1% (236/712) of the patients had two or more teeth extraction. The deciduous teeth were more frequently extracted 65.2% (677/1039) with second molars being the most frequently extracted deciduous teeth and first molars being the most frequently extracted permanent teeth. Permanent third molar accounted for the 0.7% (7/1039) of the extracted teeth in this study. The extractions were done more on the lower arch and on the right side of the mouth. In this study, dental caries was the leading reason for extraction of the deciduous and permanent teeth. Neonatal teeth and supernumerary accounted for 0.9% (4/438) and 0.7% (2/289) of deciduous and permanent dentition extractions respectively. Conclusion: Dental caries was the leading reason for extraction in both deciduous and permanent dentitions with female patients aged 6-12 years receiving the most tooth/teeth extractions. Stakeholder in child health need to pay adequate attention to dental caries preventive approaches to enable the pediatric population reach adulthood with a healthier dentition.
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