Association between Fixed Orthodontic Retainers and Gingival Health among Southern Region Population in Saudi Arabia-Cross sectional Study

Author(s): Ebtsam Mohammed Alshehri, Fawziah Ahmed Al-Zahrani and Weam Sharif Abdelrazag Ibrahim

Context: Periodontal diseases are made out of an enormous scope of inflammatory conditions that influence the supporting structures of the teeth. Fixed retainers are progressively utilized since they are aesthetic, require less patient participation, and give more prominent dependability in the long-term, hence being increasingly predictable. Aim: To assess the gingival health status of subjects’ maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth retained with fixed bonded retainers. Settings and Design: Cross sectional Study. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three and 30 individuals were selected in the study and control group respectively. The gingival index, plaque index, presence of calculus, and periodontal parameters were recorded. A five-question oral hygiene survey was developed to asses each subject’s oral hygiene habits. Data have been analyses and compared to determine the association between periodontal disease and fixed orthodontic retainers. Statistical analysis used: The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version 18.0) was used for statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics were presented as frequency and percentage for categorical data and mean and standard deviation for quantitative data. Chi-square test was applied for the association between categorical variables. Student’s independent variable t-test was applied to compare quantitative variables. Results: Although the result reveals no significant differences according to PI, GI, or presence of calculus. However, significant differences were present according to the gingival contour (p=0.001), stippling (p=0.002), bleeding on probing (p<0.001), presence of exudation (p<0.001). Conclusion: A long-term usage of fixed retainers might affect periodontal tissue. Long-term studies that would assess a wide range of outcomes and correlations that might affect periodontal well-being is recommended.


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