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Association of Inflammatory Cytokines with Traditional and Nontraditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Indians with known Coronary Artery Disease

Author(s): Mahalle N, Garg MK, Kulkarni MV, Naik SS.

Background: Inflammatory processes are implicated in the etiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Data on the association of inflammatory markers with cardiovascular risk factors in Indian patients with CVD are limited. Aim: This study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the association of inflammatory markers with traditional and nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors in angiographically proven coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. Subjects and Methods: We studied the association of serum highly sensitive C‑reactive protein (hsCRP) (0.1‑37.9 mg/l), interleukin‑6 (IL‑6) (2‑253.2 pg/ml) and tumor necrosis factor‑alpha (TNF‑α) (8‑525.8 pg/ml) with cardiovascular risk factors in 300 (M: 216, F: 84; mean age: 60.9 (12.4) years) CAD patients. All patients were evaluated for anthropometry and cardiovascular risk factors, and blood samples were collected for biochemical and inflammatory markers. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS Version 20. Results: Mean hsCRP, IL‑6 and TNF‑α in study population were 11.7 (9.7) mg/l, 64.5 (75.2) pg/ml, and 25.3 (40.9) pg/ml respectively. A total of 73.6% (221/300) patients had hsCRP levels >3.0 mg/l. All inflammatory markers were significantly higher and showed a positive correlation with dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and/or hypertension (HTN). TNF‑α had a negative correlation with age and positive correlation with smoking. Only IL‑6 and hsCRP had a positive correlation with insulin resistance and negative correlation with insulin secretion. Among lipid parameters, triglyceride had a positive correlation, and high density lipoprotein had a negative correlation with all inflammatory markers. There was a progressive increase in the percentage of subjects with diabetes, HTN, and dyslipidemia with increasing levels of inflammatory markers. Conclusions: Indian patients with CAD had significantly high levels of inflammatory markers, which were related to cardiovascular risk factors.

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