Background: The association between depression, anxiety, and stress among Arab
menopause and postmenopausal women have been explored in detailed. Aim: The objective
of this study was to determine the correlation between depression, anxiety, and stress in
menopausal and postmenopausal women and shedding more light on a complex relationship.
Subjects and Methods: A cross‑sectional descriptive study was used to generate menopause
symptoms experienced by Arabian women at the primary health care centers in Qatar.
A representative sample of 1468 women aged 45–65 years were approached during July 2012
and May 2014 and 1101 women agreed to participate (75.0%) and responded to the study.
Depression, anxiety, and stress were measured using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21.
Data on body mass index (BMI), clinical and other parameters were used. Univariate, multivariate,
and matrix correlation analysis were performed for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 1101
women agreed to participate after informed consent was obtained. The mean age and standard
deviation (SD) of the menopausal age were 49.55 (3.12), the mean and SD of postmenopausal age
was 58.08 (3.26) (P < 0.001). There were statistically significant differences between menopausal
stages with regards to age, ethnicity, educational status, occupation status, and place of living.
Furthermore, there were statistically significant differences between menopausal stages with
regards to BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), Vitamin D deficiency, and diseases.
Depression and anxiety were more common among postmenopause women. Furthermore, there
were no differences between the groups regarding the frequency of certain levels of stress among
menopause and postmenopause. The multivariate regression analyses revealed that age in years,
diastolic BP, consanguinity, regular exercise were a predictor for depression. Meanwhile, diastolic
BP, occupation, and physical activity considered the main risk factors for anxiety. Furthermore,
age in years, occupation, and sheesha smoking habits were considered as the main risk factors
associated with stress. Conclusion: A large number of factors were associated with experiencing
menopausal and psycho‑social problems and which had negative effects on the quality of life
among Arabian women. Depression, anxiety, and stress should be considered as important risk
factors for osteoporosis.
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