Background: The present study is aimed at analyzing the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the epithelial lining of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), dentigerous cyst (DC), radicular cyst (RC) in order to understand the possible role of iNOS with special reference to its neoplastic nature and local aggressive of cysts. Aim: The primary aim of the following study is to analyze the immunohistochemical expression of iNOS and secondary aim is to compare the iNOS expression, pattern and intensity of staining among the epithelial linings of OKC, DC and RC. Materials and Methods: iNOS in the epithelial lining cells were analyzing in 10 OKC’s, 10 DC’s and 10 RC’s using immunohistochemistry. The percentage of positive cells was assessed and presented as mean ± standard deviation. The correlation with respect to the intensity and percentage of staining within the epithelial linings of OKCs, DCs and RCs was carried out using (analysis of variance and Student’s t‑test) Chi‑square test. Results: Staining intensity of iNOS portion was seen in the entire thickness of the epithelial linings of OKC, whereas in DC’s only one case had entire thickness of the epithelial lining staining and in RC’s none of the cases showed entire thickness of staining. On comparing the staining intensity of iNOS between OKC, DC and RC groups, using Chi‑square test, there was a statistically significant difference between these groups (P < 0.01). On analyzing the immuno‑reactivity of iNOS in OKC, DC and RC there was a positive variable expression iNOS between the cysts. Conclusion: iNOS was over expressed in OKCs when compared with DC and RC suggesting that iNOS may contribute to the aggressive behavior of OKC. This is yet another evidence to support that OKC is the neoplasm.
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