Modern dentistry offers many options for the restoration of partially edentulous mouth, like Temporary Partial Denture (TPD), Removable Partial Dentures (RPD), fixed bridges and dental implants. Temporary partial dentures became very popular many decades ago in dentistry due to the cost effectiveness and less time consumption. Many patients choose temporary partial dentures due to factors ranging from cost to physiology. Today, many dentists are advising temporary partial dentures because they make better and durable appliances and can be provided for periodontally compromised dentitions with less bone density. The aim of the study was to evaluate the factors for selection of TPD as a treatment of choice in a teaching institution. A retrospective study was carried out using case records of 761 patients who reported to the Department of Prosthodontics from June 2019 to March 2020. The various reasons for preferring temporary partial denture as treatment of choice were observed from the digital records and tabulated on a spreadsheet. The collected data was analyzed by computer software SPSS version 21 using Chi square test indicating the level of significance. The reasons for choice of temporary partial denture as a treatment were for space maintenance before placing implants (17.2%), inadequate space for fixed replacement (0.5%), patient willingness and affordability(3%), long span edentulousness (0.3%), periodontally compromised dentition (78%), and space maintenance during orthodontic treatment (0.5%). The periodontally compromised dentition was the most common reason for opting temporary partial denture as a treat of choice. The factors for selecting temporary partial denture as a treatment of choice had significant association with age and no association with gender.