Background: Air pollution causes serious health impact as one-third of deaths occur due to exposure to air pollutants. The pollutant has both acute and chronic effects which go deep into the organ systems and deposit into tissues and causes long-term and short-term effects on the human body. Objective: The objective of this review is to develop a quantitative understanding of the current state of knowledge about potential health effects with respect to the dose-response relationship between exposure to criteria air pollutants and health risk assessment. Methods: High quality scientific research papers were drawn with consideration of experimental design, conduct and reporting for analyzing the exposures to criteria air pollutants via inhalation which imitate the expected route of exposure to the humans. Results: The majority of the evidence refers to effects on the respiratory system, cardiovascular, inflammatory and blood affecting diseases. Conclusion: This critical assessment investigated the effects on susceptible subjects and stimulated diseases which are classified as physiological and psychological diseases. This critical assessment investigated the effects on susceptible subjects and stimulated diseases like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, allergic rhinitis, Alzheimer's, Diabetes, etc.