Background: The pattern of gynecological malignancies varies among nations and even within health institution in the same country. Understanding the histoâ€‘pathological pattern of these malignancies will help in the management of the patient. Aim: The aim of the following study is to establish the frequency, histoâ€‘pathological features, and distribution of genital tract malignancies as seen in a tertiary health institution in North â€‘ western Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of data from ward admissions and discharge records, surgical biopsy materials from the theater and the histopathology laboratory results of slides. The study was carried out at the Usmanu Danâ€‘Fodiyo University Teaching Hospital Sokoto, Nigeria. Data were entered into a study proforma and analysis was through SPSS version 15 (Chicago IL) for windows. The results were expressed in simple percentages, tables and charts. Results: During the study period (2000â€‘2009), there were 404 cases of gynecological malignancies recorded in the hospital. Cervical cancer was the most common gynecological malignancy 274/404 (69%), followed by choriocarcinoma 52/404 (13.1%), ovarian cancer 46/404 (11.4%) while the least common was vaginal cancer 1/404 (0.3%). The mean age of the cancers was 54 years (28.3). The mean age of incidence of all ovarian cancers was 52.5 years (SD ± 16.2). Epithelial ovarian tumors had a mean age incidence of 67 (12) years, while that of ovarian germ cell tumors was 18.5 (8) years. The incidence of cervical cancer showed a rising trend. Moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma was the most common histological variant of cervical carcinoma 170/252 (67.5%). Among the ovarian tumors, epithelial cancers were the most common 38/46 (82.6%), and were followed by the germ cell tumors 5/46 (10.9%). Dysgerminoma was the predominant ovarian germ cell tumour 4/5 (80%). There were 50 deaths from these cancers in our hospital. Conclusion: Cervical cancer is the most common gynecological malignancy in our centerand it was followed by Choriocarcinoma. Efforts to reduce the cancer burden should focus on heath education of the masses, national organized screening especially for cervical cancer and establishing regional centers for monitoring and evaluation of these programs.
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