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Lipid Profile of Anti‑Retroviral Treatment‑Naïve HIV‑Infected Patients in Jos, Nigeria

Author(s): Daniyam CA, Iroezindu MO

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and its treatment are associated with lipid abnormalities. Data on lipid profile of treatment‑naïve HIV‑infected patients in Nigeria are limited, and available studies did not exclude the role of major host‑related risk factors for dyslipidemia. Aim: We assessed the lipid profile of normotensive, non‑diabetic, and non‑obese treatment‑naïve HIV‑infected patients to identify their abnormalities in comparison with age‑ and sex‑matched HIV‑negative control. Subjects and Methods: One hundred and six normotensive, non‑diabetic, and non‑obese HIV positive patients and 98 age‑and sex‑matched HIV‑negative controls had lipid profile estimation in the fasting state. The CD4+ cell count of the HIV‑infected patients was also quantified. Results: The median (IQR) triglyceride was significantly higher in HIV‑positive patients than in the controls [1.75 (1.30‑2.40) mmol/L vs. 1.55 (1.30‑1.90) mmol/L, P = 0.01]. HIV‑positive patients also had significantly lower mean total cholesterol, TC [4.18 (1.04) mmol/L vs. 4.64 (1.01) mmol/L, P = 0.001] and HDL‑C [1.17 (0.35) mmol/L vs. 1.29 (0.43) mmol/L, P = 0.03]. The mean LDL‑C [2.20 (0.87) mmol/L vs. 2.19 (0.75) mmol/L, P = 0.97] and TC/HDL‑C ratio [3.95 (1.42) vs. 3.84 (1.14) mmol/L, P = 0.52] were similar between the HIV‑positive patients and controls. The HIV‑infected patients had a significantly higher proportion of subjects with low HDL‑C [36.8% (39/106) vs. 23.5% (23/98), P = 0.04] and hypertriglyceridemia [31.1% (33/106) vs. 11.2% (11/98), P = 0.001] while the controls had significantly higher proportion of subjects with hypercholesterolemia [22.4% (22/98) vs. 10.4% (11/106), P = 0.02]. Lower HDL‑C was associated with CD4+ cell count < 200 cells/μL (P = 0.02). Conclusion: Lipid abnormalities are common in treatment‑naïve HIV‑infected patients even in the absence of major host‑related risk factors for dyslipidemia. HIV‑infected patients should, therefore, be routinely screened for lipid disorders before commencement of anti‑retroviral therapy.


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