Mechanisms of Hip Fracture in Owerri, Nigeria, and its Associated Variables

Author(s): Onwukamuche CK, Ekezie J, Anyanwu GE, Nwaiwu CO, Agu AU

Background: Hip fracture has been associated with various risk factors, including osteoporosis, excessive alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, visual impairment, aging, sex, rural/urban inhabitation, race and climatic variations. Mechanisms of hip fractures in many parts of the world have been documented, and include road traffic accident (RTA), gunshot injury, fall from heights and many others. There is paucity of such documentation in Owerri, Nigeria. Aim: This study was designed to investigate the mechanism of hip fractures in Owerri, Nigeria, and to determine its prevailing factors. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in hospitals located in Owerri, Nigeria. Cases of hip fracture were identified from the medical register while data were sourced from the medical record department for hip fractures that occurred between 1st January 2002 and 31st December 2008 for patients resident in Owerri and aged between 10 years and above. Results: The study uncovered a total of 105 cases of hip fractures over the study period in 65% (n = 68) males and 35% (n = 37) females. Proportion of hip fractures as a result of fragility fracture mechanisms was significantly higher in females than in the males (P < 0.001), while the reverse was the case for RTA mechanisms. In the same vein, proportion of hip fractures as a result of moderate trauma mechanisms was significantly higher in the elderly than in the young patients (P < 0.001), while the reverse was the case for RTA mechanisms. Conclusion: Mechanism of hip fractures in Owerri, Nigeria, can be associated with gender and age. RTA had the largest single contributory mechanism of hip fractures in Owerri. Therefore, public health campaigns and promotions should be created to reduce the influence of RTA on hip fracture among this population. Among the elderly population, hip fracture was mostly sustained from fragility trauma mechanisms, suggesting that osteoporosis is a major contributory factor of hip fracture among this population.


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