Background: Nonâ€‘adherence to antiâ€‘tuberculosis (TB) treatment adversely affects treatment success rate. It increases disease morbidity and mortality. Also, it contributes significantly to the development of drug resistance. Aim: To identify risk factors for nonâ€‘adherence to antiâ€‘TB treatment by new pulmonary TB patients. Subjects and Methods: It is a prospective cohort study at 21 TB treatment centres in E ward of Mumbai Municipal Corporation. All sputum smear positive new pulmonary TB patients initiated on treatment regimen of short course chemotherapy fro 1st January to 30th June of a calendar year were enrolled and followed up till any final outcome as per revised national TB control program. Nonâ€‘adherence was defined as interruption of antiâ€‘TB treatment for ≥ 1 month. The factors were identified by univariate and logistic regression analysis. Results: We studied 156 newly diagnosed pulmonary TB patients. Out of these 78 (50%) were nonâ€‘adherent to antiâ€‘tuberculosis treatment (ATT). Independent risk factors for nonâ€‘adherence were identified as male gender (P = 0.035) and lack of knowledge of importance of regular treatment (P = 0.001). Being female sex worker (FSW) was also an absolute risk factor for nonâ€‘adherence. Conclusions: There is immense need for continuous, effective and reinforcing health education to the patient and his family. Special groups like males in the age group of 15â€‘49 years, patients who do not have any family support like migrants, FSW need special attention to ensure adherence to ATT.
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