Background: OMIC base technique is the most modern diagnostic assay for isolation of clinical biomarkes of viral genome causing Diarrhoea, Gastrointestinal tract (GI) infection and Inflamatory Bowel Diseases (IBD). This technologies such prone to enable the study about GI tract diseases with molecular level detection of viral genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics.
Aim: The aim was to identify different clinical genomic biomarkers causing Diarrhea by viral element with their prevalence rate among children’s in slum area and also study the sensitivity rate in OMIC technique with established the newest techniques to easy and early detection of biomarkers in our diagnostic purpose.
Method: The present study was conducted among 200 selected symptomatic slum children’s with an acute gastroenteritis from August 2019 to July 2022 at Index Medical College and Research centre in Indore, MP. The criteria for inclusion were, children of all sexes who have been diagnosed acute gastroenteritis. The research cover the children;s age group between >1month to 5 years and children residing at selected slums of Indore City. The exclusion criteria includes patients with ages >5 years and both gender, malignancy, genetic malformation, acute illness, other gastrointestinal infections, other valvular dysfunctions and other endocrine abnormalities. The stool sample was collected in a width mouth container and further processing for viral genomic detection with multiplex PCR, RT-PCR, immunochromatography technique and finally detection of clinical biomarkers associated with viral transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics by using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS).
Results: Acute gastroenteritis can be caused by a number of different infectious agents, the most common of which are viruses, bacteria, and parasites. In this study we showed viruses such as Rotavirus (24.5% of the total) and Norovirus (23.5% of the total) are responsible for the highest infection rate. In addition to that, adenoviruses (11%) and astroviruses (13.5%). These agents can be passed on to the host through a variety of channels, including the faeco–oral route, person- to-person contact, and fomites.
Conclusion: It is a target-independent assay that allows for the simultaneous detection and genomic characterization of all microorganisms present in a sample using a next-generation sequencing platform. The Next Generation Sequencing and other omics-based approaches have the potential to serve as the foundational methodologies for the detection of novel biomarkers in clinical microbiology. This is assuming that cost is an obstacle. These modalities should be easily considered and integrated for a more holistic and comprehensive management of patients who have acute gastroenteritis. This should become possible as the use of various omics-based approaches is expected to become more widespread and, hopefully, more accessible in the near future.
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