Introduction: Despite several interventions, HIV/AIDS continued global leading cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries including Ethiopia. Aim: This study was aimed at assessing the risks of HIV infection and conditions after ART initiation among people living with HIV/AIDS at Zewditu Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: An ethnographic study was conducted using an in-depth interview through semi structured questionnaire and tape recorder. Using tape recorder, careful probing, verbatim transcription, interviewing up to saturation point and considering disparity are activities to keep data trustworthiness. Data were read carefully and grouped in to themes; risky behaviors, diagnosis and reactions, conditions after ART initiation, and future plan for thematic analysis. Results: Seven people living with HIV/AIDS (three male and four female) were participated. The mean age of respondents was 39.29 ± 6.34 SD. There were three orthodox followers, three divorced, two in marriage and two college graduated. All had serious risky behaviors to HIV infection: four had multiple sexual partners, three were very poor, two with substance abuse, two had blood contact history, and one had unprotected sex with different men. All accepted their diagnosis result, but only four started ART soon. All participants stopped having children or pregnancy since knowing their status and only four disclosed status. All respondents showed health improvement, and four respondents have desire to have marriage and children. Conclusions: Interviewed people were with different serious risky behaviors that will lead them HIV infection. ART service helped them improve their health, weight gain and have future plan on marriage, having children and education. Coordinated community level education, strong counseling, accessing uninterrupted HIV testing and ART services, open partner/family discussion, early HIV diagnosis and treatment, avoiding substance abuse, improving income of people with HIV/AIDS and safe sex practice are crucial to prevent HIV infection and improve ART adherence.
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