Prevalence of Clinical and Radiological Manifestations among COVID-19 Children and Adolescents: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Author(s): Hanan Saleh Aloqbi*, Ghaliya Yahya Shannaq, Tahani Ahmed Douf, Manal Mohammed Maashi, Faisal Mohammed Aljadani, Amro Abdullah Alsultan, Khadijah Jadah Asiri and Naif Abdullah Alotaibi

Background: The severity of lung involvement associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection levels from lack of symptoms or slight pneumonia (in 81%) to excessive disease-associated hypoxia (seen in 14%), a critical disease associated with shock, respiration failure, and multi-organ failure (in 5%) or death (2.3%). Aim: This work aims to determine the prevalence of clinical and radiological manifestations among children and adolescents COVID-19 patients. Materials and Methods: A systematic search was performed over different medical databases to identify Pediatrics studies, which studied the outcome of COVID-19 infection in children and adolescents. Using the meta-analysis process, either with fixed or random-effects models, we conducted a meta-analysis on the prevalence of clinical manifestations (e.g., fever, nasal congestion, cough, dyspnea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and critical cases), as primary outcomes, and on radiological manifestations (e.g., CT involvement – ground-glass opacities), as a secondary outcome. pooled prevalence of abdominal pain = 9.6%, pooled prevalence of critical cases = 7.7% Results: Eight studies were identified involving 682 patients. The meta-analysis process revealed a pooled prevalence of fever = 61.1%, a pooled prevalence of nasal congestion = 8%, pooled prevalence of cough = 49.7%, pooled prevalence of dyspnea = 21.4%, pooled prevalence of diarrhea = 13.3%, pooled prevalence of critical cases = 7.7%. Concerning the secondary outcome measures, the pooled prevalence of CT involvement = 41.6%. Conclusion: To conclude, COVID-19 disease cause different manifestations in children such as fever and respiratory symptoms such as cough and dyspnea, organizing pneumonia and decreased pulmonary function.

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