The Burden and Outcome of Pediatric Renal Admissions at the Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki: A 3???year Review (2011???2013)

Author(s): Muoneke VU*, Una AF, Eke CB and Anyanwu OU

Background: Renal diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide particularly in the resource‑poor countries of sub‑Saharan Africa. Adequate data on these diseases in children in our setting are limited as a result of late/nonpresentation. Aim: The aim of the study is to review the pattern and outcome of pediatric renal admissions at the Federal Teaching Hospital (FETH) Abakaliki over a 3‑year period. Subjects and Methods: This was a retrospective observational review of all childhood renal admissions in FETH, Abakaliki, Ebonyi state between 2011 and 2013. Relevant clinical data extracted from the hospital records included patients’ biodata, presenting symptom(s), examination finding (s), laboratory investigation results as well as treatment and outcome using a semi‑structured questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using SPSS software package version 16.0. The differences in proportions were tested for statistical significance using the Chi‑square statistics. Statistical significance was based on P < 0.05. Results: In the period under review, 1780 children were admitted, of which 4.4% (79/1780) had renal disorders. The mean age of the children was 8.37 (5.1) years. Nephrotic syndrome 32.9% (26/79) was the most common while on individual basis, meatal stenosis, acute kidney injury and end‑stage renal disease, respectively, 1.3% (1/79) were the least renal disorders in the study population. The association between treatment mode and outcome of the treatment was statistically significant (P = 0.03), whereas other variables, such as age (P = 0.42), sex (P = 0.28), socioeconomic status (P = 0.33), and type of renal disease (P = 1.00) were not statistically significant. The case fatality rate was 3.8% (3/79). Conclusion: The prevalence of individual renal cases in the current study appears to be high. Nephrotic syndrome was the most common with the majority having favorable outcome. There is need to encourage early presentation as the outcome of some of these renal diseases is encouraging, especially when diagnosis and effective management are possible.
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