Context: Preconception care includes a set of preventive or therapeutic interventions and it aims to identify and relieve the biomedical, behavioral and social risks that threaten the mother’s health or pregnancy outcome. Women can participate in the preconception counseling to minimize the risks. Aims: This study aimed to determine the effect of preconception counseling based on self- care interventions on the modifiable risk factors of women who planning pregnancy. Settings and Design: A quasi- experimental one group pre-test ans posttest design was used to assess the effectiveness of preconception counseling on 40 women who planning pregnancy. The tools used in this study included demographic questionnaire and questionnaire of modifiable risk factors in women who planning pregnancy based on March of Dimes preconception health indicators. The ethical approval was achieved from the Research Ethics Committee of Alborz University of Medical Sciences (ABZUMS.REC.1395.15). Results: Friedman’s results showed the significant change in average score of modifiable risk factors before and after counseling based on self-care interventions in domains areas of general health, lifestyle, nutrition and physical activity (p<0.0001). Also, repeated measures results showed the effectiveness of consulting on body mass index indicator after 3 months. Conclusions: Performance of women in the area of preconception indicators was not enough. As a result, health care providers, especially midwives and midwifery consultants, should consider the proper and full implementation of required consultations before pregnancy based on the necessities of women.