The Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Apparently Healthy Retired Subjects in Asaba, Nigeria

Author(s): Odenigbo CU*, Oguejiofor OC, Onwubuya EI and Onwukwe CH

Background: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing globally. Studies on this subject, especially in the older age groups are difficult to come by in developing countries like Nigeria. Aim: The aim of this study, therefore, is to estimate the prevalence of CKD in retired and elderly Nigerian subjects. Subjects and Methods: A total of 170 retired subjects were recruited for the study. Anthropometric measurements were carried out and blood samples taken for serum urea and creatinine estimation. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was determined using software by Kidney Health Australia. The figures obtained thereafter were multiplied by 1.21 to accommodate for the black race. Differences between subjects were tested, using Chi‑squared test for categorical data, while two tailed unpaired t‑test was used for comparison of means. A significant difference was defined as (P < 0.05) Results: A total of 170 subjects with age ranged between 50 and 86 years, with a mean age of 68.1 (7.7) years (95% confidence interval [CI = 66.9‑69.3]) completed this study. Male: Female ratio was 2:1 and 66.5% (113/170) of subjects were elderly (above 65 years). eGFR of subjects ranged from 31 to 114 ml/min/1.73 m2, with a mean of 64.5 (16.5) ml/min/1.73 m2 (95% CI = 62.0‑67.0). The prevalence of CKD in the general population studied was 43.5% (74/170), whereas that in the elderly sub‑population was 40.7% (46/113). In the non‑elderly subjects, CKD was observed in 49.1% (28/57) of subjects. There was no statistically significant difference between the prevalence of CKD in both groups (P = 0.53). The prevalence of CKD was significantly higher in the female subjects than their male counterparts. Subjects with CKD had 33.33% (38/74) males and 64.3% (36/74) females. Conclusion: Prevalence of CKD in this studied population is quite high. More aggressive public health measures are required to stem the tide.

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