Public health experts worldwide concede that there is a global epidemic of road traffic accidents (RTA). Globally, RTA is the leading cause of injuryâ€‘related deaths. In Nigeria, injuries and deaths resulting from RTA are on the rise and are Nigeria’s thirdâ€‘leading cause of overall deaths, the leading cause of traumaâ€‘related deaths and the most common cause of disability. Do RTA constitute a public health problem in Nigeria? If so, is there a pragmatic approach to combat this problem? A systematic literature search using the advanced features of various databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Google, and directory of open access journals was carried out using the key words “ RTA, public health problem, government response, Nigeria.” Out of initial 850 articles retrieved from the search 15 articles that suited the study were included in this review. There is need to view RTA s as an issue of urgent national importance that needs urgent attention aimed at reducing the health, social, and economic impact. Policy makers at the various levels of government need to recognize this growing problem as a public health crisis and design appropriate policy responses that will back up with meticulous implementation.