Introduction: Nigeria was edging closer towards polio-free certification status until recently when the country experienced outbreaks of Wild Polio Virus type 1 in an insurgent-ravaged North eastern State of Borno. Despite this setback, all the States in the country must ensure that high surveillance sensitivity is achieved in an effort to achieve certification. In the light of this, we examined the role of motivating factors that could explain good acute flaccid paralysis surveillance performance in Kebbi State, Nigeria. Methods: The study is an observational descriptive study that made use of primary data sourced from the administration of questionnaires to 20 Disease Surveillance and Notification Officers (DSNOs) working in Kebbi State. We also retrospectively analysed secondary data to show the trend of performance of some key indicators from 2014 to 2016 in the State. Results and Discussion: Our study showed that certain factors such as the availability of decent amount of fund to support stool courier by DSNOs to reference virology laboratory; prompt payment of courier service allowance to DSNOs; high quality data analysis and feedback; availability of motorcycle to support surveillance activities and other logistics such as surveillance data tools; prompt payment of monthly salary by government; institutionalisation of reward system and effective periodic training supported by WHO could explain the good AFP surveillance performance in the State. Conclusion: Our study revealed that certain motivating factors and enabling environment are critical to achieving and sustaining good surveillance performance. These factors were present in Kebbi State and have contributed to the consistently impressive AFP surveillance performance recorded in the past 3 years. These factors should be replicated by relevant government ministries and supported by technical partner(s) in other States to improve performance indicators towards meeting polio-free certification standards or applied to other public health interventions towards achieving the much desired programmatic goals.
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