Background: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic has brought about a resurgence in tuberculosis (TB), especially in developing countries. Previous studies on TB lymphadenitis (TBLN) in Southâ€‘Eastern Nigeria were done before the advent of the HIV pandemic making a review pertinent. Aim: To evaluate the role of TBLN as a cause of superficial lymphadenopathy in the postâ€‘HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) era of Southâ€‘Eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a 15 years (2000–2014) retrospective review of all superficial lymph node biopsies (SLNBs) received at the Department of Morbid Anatomy, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Itukuâ€‘Ozalla Enugu, Nigeria. Results: One hundred and seventyâ€‘two cases of TBLN were identified in this study constituting 14.6% (172/1,180) of SLNBs received at our Hospital’s Morbid Anatomy Department during the 15 years period under review. Twentyâ€‘eight cases of TBLN were clinically screened for HIV, 23 of which tested positive, representing 82.1% (23/28) of clinically screened cases. Acid fast bacilli demonstration was positive in 15.1% (26/172) of cases using Ziehlâ€‘Neelsen stain. 48.8% (84/172) of TBLN cases were males, and 51.2% (88/172) were females with most (22) cases received in 2012 and least (5) cases in 2000. Most TBLN occurred in the 21–25 years age group with a total of 21.5% (37/172) of cases and a male to female ratio of 1:1.5 The most common biopsy site for TBLN was the cervical group followed by the axillary and inguinal groups with 73.8% (127/172), 14% (24/172), and 4.7% (8/172) of cases, respectively. Conclusions: There is a remarkable decline in the prevalence of TB lymphadenitis in Southâ€‘Eastern Nigeria indicating a change in trend from the preâ€‘ to the postâ€‘HIV/AIDS era with slightly more females now presenting with TBLN and most TB lymphadenitis patients now presenting with associated HIV/AIDS disease. There is an urgent need to provide modern diagnostic facilities in our medical laboratories.
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