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Changing Pattern of Bacteriuria among Asymptomatic Secondary School Adolescents within Enugu South East Nigeria

Author(s): Nwokocha A, Ujunwa FA, Onukwuli VO, Okafor HU, Onyemelukwe N.

Background: Urinary tract infection is one of the infections that could lead to chronic kidney disease. Most of the offending isolates are usually Gram‑negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Adolescent age groups are a special group of individuals who indulge in some risk behavior that could predispose them to urinary tract infections with possible mixed flora. Aim: The aim was to determine the burden of Gram‑positive significant bacteriuria among adolescents in Enugu. Subjects and Methods: A survey of 628 adolescents attending secondary schools in Enugu was studied. Information on sociodemographic profile was obtained using a self‑administered questionnaire. Clean‑catch urine sample was collected using a sterile boric acid bottle, and this was cultured in both anaerobic and aerobic media. Significant isolates were Gram‑stained in order to determine their characteristics. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0.(Chicago Illinois USA). Results: There were 324 females and 304 males. Significant bacteria growth was identified in 61 samples giving a prevalence rate of 9.7% (61/628). Gram‑positive bacteria were isolated in 77.1% (47/61) of samples, while Gram‑negative bacteria were isolated in 22.9% (14/61) of samples. Staphylococcus saprophyticus was the most common Gram‑positive organism isolated this consists 38.3% (18/47) while E. coli was the most common Gram‑negative bacteria isolated comprising 64.2% (9/14). Other Gram‑positive bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus auerus, Staphylococcus epididimis. All isolated bacteria were more common in females 44/61 (72.1%) than males 17/61 (27.9%). Conclusion: Gram‑positive bacteriuria is prevalent among secondary school adolescents, and S. saprophyticus is the most common Gram‑positive organism implicated. Further studies should be undertaken to determine the risk factors and possible sensitivity pattern among the age group.

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