Evaluation of Antiulcer Properties of Ethanolic and Hot Aqueous Stem Extracts of Synclisia scabrida on Experimentally Induced Ulcer Models in Albino Mice

Author(s): Onwudiwe TC, Ughachukwu PO, Unekwe PC, Ogamba JO

Background: The treatment of peptic ulcer disease poses therapeutic challenges to both patients and physicians alike because of the tendency of ulcers to relapse. Drugs used in the treatment of this disease are either costly or are associated with high incidence of adverse effects.Synclisia scabrida is a plant used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of various forms of stomach disorders and menstrual pains. The medicinal properties of the plants are claimed to reside in the roots, stems, and the leaves. Aim: This study, therefore, is to verify this claim and elucidate the probable mechanism of action by using crude stem extracts of this plant on drug‑ and stress‑induced ulcer models in albino mice. Materials and Methods: Crude ethanol and hot water extracts, EE and HWE respectively, of the stem were prepared. These extracts were fractionated and separated by chromatographic methods and the fractions pooled together as fractions (PF‑1, PF‑2, PF‑3 respectively) based on their chromatographic mobility and color reactions. Phytochemical analysis was done on the extracts. Ulcer models were induced in albino mice by means of indomethacin, histamine, and stress after prior cytoprotection with orally administered crude extracts and control (cimetidine). Results: Phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts and their fractions revealed the presence of cardiac glycosides (+++), tannins (+++), saponins (+), flavonoids (++), carbohydrates (++) and alkaloids (+++). Acute toxicity study on the crude extracts and their fractions revealed relative safety at the dose of 5000 mg/ kg. The crude extracts (EE and HWE) and their fractions (PF‑1, PF‑2, PF‑3) significantly (P = 0.001) protected against indomethacin‑, histamine‑ and stress‑induced ulcers. The decrease in GIT motility produced by these extracts was comparable to that produced by atropine sulfate. Conclusion: The findings suggest that these extracts of Synclisia scabrida possess antiulcer and antispasmodic properties, which justify the claims for its use in the treatment of various forms of stomach disorders.


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