Lung cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers, but it is usually lately discovered. The main objective of this study was to review the literature about the use of biomarkers applying immunohistochemistry on tissues. Reviewing literature showed the need to use biomarkers to help in both diagnosing and assessing the clinical status of lung cancer. To choose the best course of treatment, it is essential to diagnose and distinguish Lung Adenocarcinoma (LUAD) from Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma (LUSC), as recent targeted medicines demand precise subtyping Nonsmall-cell Lung Cancer (NSCLCs). Several biomarkers that could be used to distinguish between LUAD and LUSC, but they are less sensitive, specific, and clinically useful. LUSC expressed more SPATS2 and CLCA2 than LUAD. The expression of ST6GALNAC1 and Adipophilin was hfigher fin LUAD than LUSC (P 0.001). The CLCA2, SPATS2, ST6GALNAC1, and Adipophilin test has a 100% sensitivity and specificity for appropriate subtyping and diagnosis. Taken together, searching for the discovery of biomarkers and their applications in lung cancer is an ongoing process to cope with challenges in diagnosis and assessment of lung cancer.
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