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Incidence, Pattern and Management of Ovarian Cancer at a Tertiary Medical Center in Enugu, South East Nigeria

Author(s):

Iyoke CA, Ugwu GO, Ezugwu EC, Onah N, Ugwu O, Okafor O

Background: The incidence of ovarian cancer is thought to be increasing in developing countries and little is known about the pattern and incidence of this disease in Southâ????East Nigeria. Aims: The objectives of the study were to determine the incidence, describe the pattern and management of ovarian cancer at a tertiary medical center in Enugu South East Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective review of cases of histologically diagnosed primary ovarian cancer at the study center over 11 years.Cases of histologically diagnosed primary ovarian cancer were identified through the records of the study center cancer registry and confirmed from the records of the histopathology department. Case notes, admission and theatre records were used to obtain data relating to clinical management, mortality and incidence of primary ovarian cancer. Statistical analysis was dose using SPSS statistical software version 17.0 for windows. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied to obtain rates, proportions and 95% confidence intervals for these estimates. Results: There were 20,227 gynecological admissions during the study period (from January 2000 to December 2010) and 206 gynecological cancers. There were 54 cases of primary ovarian cancer giving an incidence rate of 1/405 gynecological admissions per year or 0.3% (95% confidential interval [CI] 0.23%, 0.38%) or 2.4% (54/206) per gynecological cancer per year. Epithelial ovarian cancer constituted 68% of cases of ovarian cancer (95% CI 54%, 82%): Sex cord and germ cell tumors constituted 16% each (95% CI 6%, 26%). Approximately 60% of women who had epithelial ovarian cancer were aged 50 years or below (95% CI 47%, 74%) and 72% of epithelial ovarian cancer occurred in multiparous women (95% CI 72.1%, 91.9%). Over 84% of ovarian cancer presented in stages 3 and 4 of the disease (95% CI 94%, 72%). The mainstay of management was surgery: Compliance with cisâ????platinum based adjuvant chemotherapy was poor. Caseâ????specific mortality rate within 1 year of diagnosis was, at least, 70% (95% CI 64%, 84%). Conclusions: Primary ovarian cancer was uncommon and consisted mainly of epithelial cancer. Epithelial ovarian cancer occurred more in multiparous women and in women under 50 years in our center contrary to the known pattern of the disease.


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