Objectives: To determine the prevalence, risk factors and common bacterial pathogens for surgical site infection (SSI), following cesarean section (CS). Materials and Methods: A retrospective case-control study of patients delivered by CS in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria. The cases were the patients whose CS was complicated by SSI; they were matched by other patients delivered by CS who had had no SSI as controls. Hospital records of cases and controls were compared. Results: Four hundred and forty five hospital records were available for review, 44 (9.1%) had SSI. Statistically significant determinants of infection are: Long duration of labor before CS (P<0.001), Long operation time (P=0.009), heavy intraoperative blood loss and blood transfusion (P<0.001). Eleven (25%) of the cases had CS due to obstructed labor compared to 15.3% of controls. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 31.8% of the cases. Cephalosporins and quinolones were the most sensitive antibiotics. Conclusion: The incidence of SSI following CS in our unit was 9.1%. Most cases followed prolonged obstructed labor, with long operation time and heavy blood loss. Staphylococcus aureus sensitive to cephalosporins was the most frequently isolated pathogen. Strategies for preventing prolonged obstructed labor and appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis may prove effective.