Objective: Vitamin D is classi ied as an immunomodulatory hormone synthesized on skin exposure to sunlight. It is known to come into play during the regulation of hormone secretion, immune functions, cell proliferation, and differentiation. Its de iciency can cause plentiful diseases along with their associated pleiotropic effects. In this direction, the available line of research as to the effects of vitamin D absorption, metabolism, health effects/bene its, effects/health bene its, de iciency of vitamin D, VDR, and 25- hydroxyvitamin D was reviewed.
Methods: The literature review was conducted through selected websites, involving Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Central, PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, EFSA, plus the World Health Organization.
Results: The mentioned aspects, vis-àvis its eminent function toward adaptive immune response and innate immune response, vitamin D levels are ascribed to immune tolerance. Vitamin D is found effective fort he regulation of hormone secretion, immune functions, cell proliferation along with differentiation. Its role as an immune modulator is based on the presence of receptors on a good number of immune cells and the synthesis of its active metabolite from these cells. Vitamin D, an immune system modulator, inhibits cell proliferation and stimulates cell differentiation.
Conclusion: There is not enough safety data to be able to give appropriate advice to individuals through a risk bene it analysis regarding the potential advantages of vitamin D against possible risks. To get the most bene its for health from vitamin D, more studies are needed on individual consumption and the relation of dose response.
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